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页岩气压裂条件下断层滑移及其影响因素
李军1,2,赵超杰2,柳贡慧2,张辉2,张鑫2,任凯3
(1.中国石油大学(北京)克拉玛依校区石油学院,新疆克拉玛依 834000;2.中国石油大学(北京) 石油工程学院,北京 102249;3.中国石油吐哈油田分公司工程技术研究院, 新疆吐鲁番 838299)
摘要:
威远-长宁页岩气示范区部分区块套管变形率超过40%,而水力压裂诱发断层滑移是导致套管变形的主要因素之一。明确水力裂缝诱导下断层的激活机制及滑移量,对页岩气压裂过程中预防套管变形具有重要意义,而目前尚缺乏水力压裂下断层滑移量的理论模型。基于此,根据断裂力学理论,分析水力裂缝激活断层产生滑移的作用机制,建立水力压裂下断层滑移量计算模型。应用该模型对威远页岩气水平井威202X井进行实例计算,对断层滑移量影响因素进行敏感性分析。结果表明:断层激活点处的位移量可达46 mm,与现场实测套管变形数据吻合,验证了该模型的有效性;裂缝内的流体净压力越大,断层滑移量越大;裂缝长度越大,断层滑移量越大;控制压裂泵压和裂缝长度可以有效降低断层滑移量,避免套管严重变形;同时,高水平地应力差异系数、高弹性模量地层的断层滑移更严重;加入可压缩变形材料(陶瓷、玻璃球等)的水泥环能够为大部分断层提供适量滑移空间。
关键词:  页岩气  水力压裂  断层滑移  套管变形  井筒完整性
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5005.2021.02.007
分类号::TE 122.14
文献标识码:A
基金项目:
Assessment of fault slip in shale formation during hydraulic fracturing and its influence factors
LI Jun1,2 , ZHAO Chaojie2, LIU Gonghui2, ZHANG Hui 2, ZHANG Xin 2, REN Kai3
(1.College of Petroleum in China University of Petroleum(Beijing)at Karamay, Karamay 834000,China;2.College of Petroleum Engineering in China University of Petroleum(Beijing), Beijing 102249, China;3.Institute of Engineering Technology of PetroChina Tuha Oilfiled, Turpan 838299, China)
Abstract:
More than 40% of the casing in production wells has been deformed in Weiyuan-Changning shale gas field, which has a great impact on the development of shale gas. The current field investigation indicates that fault slip induced by hydraulic fracturing could be the main reason for casing deformation. In this paper, the mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing induced fault slip were analyzed, combined with the theory of fracture mechanics, and a calculation model for the fault slip under hydraulic fracturing was established. The calculation results for well Wei202X based on new model show that the fault slip reaches to 46 mm in the activated point of fault. They are in line with the field observation of the fault slip occurred in the shale gas field. The sensitivity study results show that the displacement of fault slip increases with the fracturing fluid pressure and the length of hydraulic fractures. Adequate adjustments of the fracturing pump pressure and the fracture length can reduce the fault slippage, and then avoid serious casing deformation. The faults subjected with high difference of horizontal in-situ stresses and with in rock formation having high elastic modulus will slip with a large displacement once the slippage is activated. The cement sheath with compressible materials(ceramic balls, marble, etc.) can provide enough space for most of fault slip. The model established in this study can provide a calculation method for fault slip during hydraulic fracturing, which is useful for preventing casing deformation in shale gas wells.
Key words:  shale gas  hydraulic fracturing  slip of fault  casing deformation  well integrity
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