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超声临界折射纵波测量应力的温度影响
李玉坤1,于文广2,李玉星1,张玉1,陶建中3,程磊3
(1.中国石油大学(华东)储运与建筑工程学院,山东青岛 266580;2.国家石油天然气管网集团有限公司油气调控中心,北京 100020;3.国家管网集团西部管道有限责任公司,新疆乌鲁木齐 830000)
摘要:
超声临界折射纵波(LCR波)法是无损检测工作状态下结构应力的有效方法。超声LCR波法是敏感测量方法,温度直接影响超声波的传播速度,也会引起超声换能器的尺寸变化。根据超声波测量应力的基础理论-声弹性理论,分析声弹性系数和零应力下飞行时间与温度的定量关系,得到超声波测量应力的温度补偿公式,通过试验测量不同温度下超声LCR波飞行时间。结果表明:温度对超声LCR波测量应力的影响归结于温度对超声LCR波传播声程的影响,温度越高超声LCR波传播的有效声程越长;设计的一发两收超声换能器可有效地消除声楔块和耦合剂的影响,将温度的影响程度降低至10%,可显著提高测量精度和稳定性;试验测量与理论计算得到的飞行时间与温度关系有着良好的一致性,充分验证了补偿公式的准确性。
关键词:  临界折射纵波  应力  温度  飞行时间  超声换能器
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5005.2021.02.016
分类号::U 178
文献标识码:A
基金项目:
Effect of temperature on measurement of stress by ultrasonic critical refractive longitudinal wave
LI Yukun1, YU Wenguang2, LI Yuxing1, ZHANG Yu1, TAO Jianzhong3, CHENG Lei3
(1.College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering in China University of Petroleum(East China), Qingdao 266580, China;2.Oil and Gas Pipeline Control Center of PipeChina Company Limited, Beijing 100020, China;3.Western Branch of PipeChina Company Limited, Urumqi 830000, China)
Abstract:
The ultrasonic critical refraction longitudinal wave (LCR wave) method is an effective method for nondestructive testing of structural stress. The ultrasonic LCR wave method is a sensitive measurement method, i.e. the temperature directly affects the propagation speed of the ultrasonic wave, and it also causes the size change of the ultrasonic transducer. According to the basic theory of ultrasonic stress measurement, i.e. the theory of acoustoelasticity, the quantitative relationship between the acoustoelastic coefficient, flight time and temperature under zero stress was analyzed, and the temperature compensation formula for ultrasonic stress measurement was obtained. The flight time of ultrasonic LCR wave at different temperatures was measured by experiments. The result shows that the effect of temperature on the stress measurement of ultrasonic LCR wave is attributed to the influence of temperature on the sound range of ultrasonic LCR wave propagation. The higher the temperature is, the longer the effective sound range of ultrasonic LCR wave propagation is. The designed ultrasonic transducer with one transmitter and two receivers can effectively eliminate the influence of acoustic wedge and coupling agent, reduce the influence of temperature to 10%, and significantly improve the measurement accuracy and stability. The relationships between flight time and temperature obtained by experimental measurement and theoretical calculation are in good agreement, and this fact fully verifies the accuracy of the compensation formula.
Key words:  critical refractive longitudinal wave  stress  temperature  flight time  ultrasonic transducer
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